By John N. Kraeuter and Michael Castagna (Eds.)
The difficult clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, is a vital advertisement, leisure and ecological inhabitant of coastal bays alongside the east and gulf coasts of the us. This identify represents the 1st state-of-the-art precis of current wisdom of the difficult clam via specialists in a number of disciplines. Containing a compendium of literature at the not easy clam, complete chapters on a variety of features of its biology in addition to summaries of data together with the grey literature in this economically vital species, this quantity represents a complete resource of organic details for managers and researchers attracted to shallow marine and estuarine ecosystems. learn scholars and bosses charged with preserving coastal ecosystems also will discover a wealth of heritage fabric. the 1st synthesis of accessible info at the mercenaria mercenaria, this identify is a reaction to the wishes of people focused on challenging clam aquaculture and scientists attracted to molluscan biology, coastal ocean ecology and related fields. Over 2300 records were synthesized, and bankruptcy authors have additional unpublished details in addition to new fabric.
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Additional resources for Biology of the Hard Clam
Elsmerensis 37 has a pronounced anterior end as in M. ) panzana, above, and is very similar to it, but its umbo is more centrally located and its underlying radial ribs are larger and fewer. ) securis is very similar to M. ) ensifera, above, but M. ) securis is slightly longer and thinner, with less pronounced umbos, and a straighter posterior dorsal margin. Of all these Pacific Pliocene species, only M. ) stimpsoni and M. ) kellettii are extant and are described below. , ranging from the east Atlantic to the east Pacific (Fig.
Stimpsoni and M. ) kellettii are extant and are described below. , ranging from the east Atlantic to the east Pacific (Fig. 4). Conchological, anatomical, and biomolecular data all indicate Mercenaria to be more closely related to Anomalocardia and Lirophora than to Chione. Paleontological and conchological data indicate that Securella is closely related to Mercenaria. Anomalocardia was created simultaneously with Mercenaria, which has the longer paleontological record. This supports placing Anomalocardia, Lirophora and Securella as subgenera under the taxon Mercenaria.
Well known as a marine species, Mercenaria mercenaria is tolerant of low salinities (Wells, 1961). Hard clams were found living upstream in a North Carolina estuary, where salinity averaged 19%o (Wells, 1961), roughly half that of normal marine conditions. Failing to detect a low salinity death point for mature animals, Wells (1961) hypothesized that the animal must rely on its store of glycogen for anaerobic respiration when the valves are closed, the amount of stored glycogen determining how long the clam can survive under saline stressful conditions.
Biology of the Hard Clam by John N. Kraeuter and Michael Castagna (Eds.)