By Joao Carlos Martins, Leonel Augusto Sousa
This e-book offers a valid mathematical and technical standpoint in useful and structural retina versions, provides assessment metrics to evaluate these versions, and gives insights concerning the versions implementation. It starts through introducing the retina anatomy and its workings in a close means appropriate for an engineering viewers, whereas delivering the mathematical research of the retina neural reaction. in addition, it explores and establishes a framework for the comparability of retina types by means of organizing a collection of metrics for trying out and comparing the several versions. The booklet follows a sign processing point of view, the place all versions and metrics are discretized on the way to be carried out and validated in a electronic method, comparable to a working laptop or computer or a really expert devoted equipment. Contents: advent to Bioelectronic imaginative and prescient; The Human visible procedure; Characterization of the Neural reaction; Retina versions; Neural task Metrics and versions overview; layout and Implementation of Bioelectronic imaginative and prescient structures.
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Extra resources for BIOELECTRONIC VISION: Retina Models, Evaluation Metrics and System Design (Series on Bioengineering & Biomedical Engineering)
1999)]. The silicon micromachining and micromanufacturing technologies allow the fabrication of small arrays with a large number of microelectrodes capable of stimulating only the neurons nearest to the electrode with a small amount of current (on the order of dozens of micro amperes). Donoghue [Donoghue (2002)] provides a general perspective of cortex electronic interfaces. A European research project, CORTIVIS, has been conducted in the last few years to develop a visual cortical neuroprosthesis based on the Utah Electrode Array [Project CORTIVIS (2006)].
A radio frequency link also has the challenge of communicating both power and control signals and the requirement that it must be bidirectional. In a retinal neuroprosthesis, a percutaneous connection would have to pass to the outside of the eye through the sclera. For the case of a retinal neuroprosthesis, a laser can also be used to transmit power and information to the implanted circuits used to stimulate the target cells [Weiland et al. (2005)]. All types of connections have a series of constraints such as bandwidth, which increases with the number of electrodes in the neural interface, and the transmitted power must also be limited to avoid causing damage to the tissues by heating.
From [Weiland et al. (2005)]) 5000 microelectrode-tipped microphotodiodes and is powered by incident light. The ASR microchip was implanted in the eyes of patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Patients did not show signs of implant rejection or infection, and all of them demonstrated improved visual function. There are other examples of subretinal implants. 1 mm, 1500 microphotodiodes, amplifiers and electrodes of 50 × 50 µm, spaced 70 µm) and a 4×4 array of identical electrodes, spaced 280 µm apart, for direct stimulation.
BIOELECTRONIC VISION: Retina Models, Evaluation Metrics and System Design (Series on Bioengineering & Biomedical Engineering) by Joao Carlos Martins, Leonel Augusto Sousa