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By Aleksander So??enicyn

Archipelag GUŁAG: 1918-1956, próba dochodzenia literackiego (Архипелаг ГУЛАГ) – najważniejsze, trzytomowe dzieło Aleksandra Sołżenicyna, napisane w formie relacji historycznej, powstałe w latach 1958-1968. Na Zachodzie wydano je po raz pierwszy w 1973, zaś w Związku Radzieckim oficjalnie w 1989 (wcześniej funkcjonowało w obiegu podziemnym).

Jest ono wymownym świadectwem zbrodniczej działalności systemu komunistycznego w ZSRR. Autor, wykorzystując swoje doświadczenia, pokazał rozwój i rozprzestrzenianie się systemu więziennictwa radzieckiego, którego celem pierwotnym miała być "eliminacja wrogich klas społecznych". W konsekwencji powstał cały "archipelag" obozów koncentracyjnych i obozów morderczej pracy, nazwany od instytucji zarządzającej (Gławnoje Uprawlenije Łagierej) Archipelagiem GUŁag. Dzieło jest świadectwem stopniowego odzierania człowieka z jego godności i zmuszania do niewolniczej pracy pod bardzo wzniosłymi hasłami.

Na Zachodzie książka ta wywołała ogromne poruszenie, które doprowadziło do rozwiania iluzji na temat systemu komunistycznego oraz osłabienia wpływów komunistów zachodnioeuropejskich.

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Ukraine will not be able to add 90,300 beds in the cities and more than 46,000 in the villages. I plead that you lower the nursery plan for 1947. We will not be able to handle such a large number. The situation in the locales is severe. Owing to the removal of a whole series of raions from provisioning, village nurseries will shut down and it won’t be our fault. 51 Ironically, by cutting back food shipments to the countryside, the government impeded the carrying out of its own plans for the expansion of the network of children’s institutions and, indeed, necessitated the closure of some existing ones.

23. manufacture of farm implements. The example of the Stalingrad tractor plant demonstrates more vividly that bread shortages, as reflected in the meager diet of workers, helped limit agricultural production, creating a vicious circle. 48 Food shortages at the tractor plant led to an increase in the number of cases of dystrophy. 49 This example in particular reveals the cyclical nature of the problem; for, as we shall see, the lack of mechanization, specifically tractors, contributed greatly to poor agricultural production, and the shortage of bread in turn limited labor output, thus slowing the production of mechanization for the countryside.

The extent of the tragedy that has stricken the country is clear, as is, consequently, the potential of the requisitioning drive. 47 This second letter spurred Stalin into action. 48 Decree No. 49 Dependents, as well as workers at state farms, machine tractor stations (MTSs), factories and institutions of local industry, industrial cooperatives, and forest rangers in the countryside lost their right to rations. The government also removed all adult dependents in the cities from bread ration lists, excluding students and those directly involved Exploring the Causes of Child Mortality ● 33 in caring for children.

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Archipelag GU?ag: 1918-1956 by Aleksander So??enicyn


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