By Alan J. Southward, Craig M. Young, Lee A. Fuiman
Quantity forty three is an eclectic quantity with studies on ecology and biogeography of marine parasites; fecundity: features and function in life-history techniques of marine invertebrates; the ecology of Southern Ocean Pack-ice; and organic and distant sensing views of pigmentation in coral reef organisms. Advances in Marine Biology used to be first released in 1963. Now edited by way of A.J. Southward (Marine organic organization, UK), P.A. Tyler (Southampton Oceanography organization, UK), C.M. younger (Harbor department Oceanographic establishment, united states) and L.A. Fuiman (University of Texas, USA), the serial publishes in-depth and updated experiences on a variety of issues as a way to attract postgraduates and researchers in marine biology, fisheries technological know-how, ecology, zoology, oceanography. Eclectic volumes within the sequence are supplemented through thematic volumes on such themes as The Biology of Calanoid Copepods . Key good points * AMB first released 1963 * This quantity provides a variety of studies at the biology of lesser-known taxa of the phylum Mollusca, together with: * The in most cases diminutive protobranch bivalves * The slug-like shelled opisthobranchs * The hugely really good and evolutionarily complicated tusk shells * the gorgeous, necessary, but frustratingly hard-to-collect slit shells
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Advances in Marine Biology used to be first released in 1963. Now edited through A. J. Southward (Marine organic organization, UK), P. A. Tyler (Southampton Oceanography organization, UK), C. M. younger (Harbor department Oceanographic establishment, united states) and L. A. Fuiman (University of Texas, USA), the serial publishes in-depth and updated studies on quite a lot of themes with the intention to attract postgraduates and researchers in marine biology, fisheries technology, ecology, zoology, oceanography.
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Such a gradient also exists for marine organisms. Clarke (1992) claimed that there is no convincing evidence for a general latitudinal trend in the sea comparable to that on land. But it is known to exist, for example, in marine teleosts (Rohde, 1982, 1993). Among marine parasites, the gradient has been well documented for metazoan ecto- and endoparasites of marine fishes. However, there is an important difference between ecto- and endoparasites. In ectoparasites there is a relatively greater increase in species numbers than of host species, whereas in endoparasites, relative species richness (number of parasite species per host species) is more or less the same at all latitudes.
Many authors have used reduction of niche overlap as evidence for the evolutionary importance of interspecific competition. An important method used to study interactions between species is the application of similarity indices, but most indices are symmetrical, and assume that each species affects the other equally. However, this is seldom the case. One species may be a stronger competitor than the other. Rohde and Hobbs (1986, 1999, further references therein) therefore proposed an asymmetrical percent similarity index, based on Reekonen's percent similarity index: 100A k OA'B = ~ E min(QiA'OiB) i=1 IOOB OB'A- k NB E min(QiA'QiB), i=1 where OA,B = overlap of A with B, A = number of individuals of species A in those k microhabitats in which B also occurs; NA = total number of individuals of species A in all microhabitats; QiA and QiB= quotient of the number of individuals of species A and B respectively in microhabitat i and the total number of individuals of each species in the k microhabitats in which they c o - o c c u r .
Site restriction All parasites prefer certain microhabitats (sites) over others, although the degree of site specificity varies. Rohde's index for host specificity can be used to measure site specificity as well, by simply replacing number of hosts by number of sites. Most accurately, the indices can be used when sites can be quantified, for instance by subdividing the gill habitat into smaller sections of more or less equal size (Rohde, 1981). Among marine parasites, many Monogenea and many didymozoid (trematode) tissue parasites have particularly narrow microhabitats.
Advances in Marine Biology, Vol. 43 by Alan J. Southward, Craig M. Young, Lee A. Fuiman