By Xiuli Wang
The function of usual gasoline in assembly the realm strength call for has been expanding as a result of its abundance, versatility, and fresh burning nature. consequently, new gasoline exploration, box improvement, and creation actions are below approach. this can be very true in locations the place normal fuel was once (until lately) labelled as 'stranded'. simply because a good portion of normal gasoline reserves world-wide can be found throughout our bodies of water, fuel transportation turns into a topic. we're facing many targeted concerns and dealing with many demanding situations within the complete 'food chain' (upstream to midstream and downstream) of normal fuel engineering. This necessitates a bridge of the know-how gaps in a few vital components: the original new applied sciences comparable to assorted interpretation of 3-D seismic in average fuel exploration; the categorical requisites in gasoline good drilling; the necessity for the hydraulically fracturing of excessive permeability fuel good to avoid the wear and tear yet most significantly to lessen turbulence because of excessive good deliverability; typical fuel sea-going transportation equivalent to liquefied normal fuel (LNG) and compressed average gasoline (CNG); gasoline conversion and garage; and, substitute and competing power resources. All of those new matters and demanding situations haven't been addressed intensive in any current books. one more reason why we placed this e-book jointly is predicated on our observations of younger execs and graduate scholars. With the facility of present computing expertise, many businesses are supplying assorted software program to unravel engineering difficulties. Many younger engineers and scholars are strong at working courses and plotting appealing graphs with no figuring out what the numbers and figures suggest. by some means humans have misplaced their basic skills to take on difficulties with out utilizing a working laptop or computer. right here, in addition to addressing the complex engineering concerns with regards to traditional fuel, we additionally offer equations besides examples and targeted calculation strategies of basic chemical and petroleum engineering difficulties. This booklet can function a reference e-book for all engineers within the power enterprise in addition to a textbook for college students in petroleum and chemical engineering curricula and within the education departments of a giant staff of businesses.
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Extra info for Advanced Natural Gas Engineering
6 Gas Viscosity Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s internal resistance to flow. The viscosity of a natural gas, expected to increase with both pressure and temperature, is usually several orders of magnitude smaller than that of oil or water; and therefore, gas is much more mobile in the reservoir than either oil or water. Gas viscosity correlations have been presented by a number of authors. However, the Carr, Kobayashi, and Burrows (1954) correlation presented in Figures 1–11 and 1–12, has been the most popular.
Beggs. 1974. Two-phase flow in pipes. Intercomp Course, The Hague. , D. G. C. Alden. 1948. Natural gasoline and the volatile hydrocarbons. NGAA, Tulsa, OK. , R. B. Burrows. 1954. Viscosity of hydrocarbon gases under pressure. Trans. AIME 201: 264–272. E. I. Stiel. 1958. The viscosity of non-polar gas mixtures at moderate and high pressures. AICHE J. 4: 430–6. R. 1965. Computer routine treats gas viscosity as a variable. Oil & Gas J. (August): 141. A. B. Robinson. 1974. Computer calculations of natural gas compressibility factors using the Standing and Katz correlation.
The range of validity will be the same as Z-factor. 7 Units and Conversions We have used “oilfield” units throughout the text, even though this system of units is inherently inconsistent. We chose this system because more petroleum engineers “think” in Mscf/d (thousand standard cubic feet per day) for gas rate and psi for pressure than in terms of m3/s (cubic meter per second) and Pa. All equations presented include the constant or constants needed with oilfield units. To employ these equations with SI units, it will be easier to first convert the SI units to oilfield units, calculate the desired results in oilfield units, and then convert the results to SI units.
Advanced Natural Gas Engineering by Xiuli Wang