By Victor Kaptelinin, Bonnie A. Nardi
Job idea holds that the human brain is the manufactured from our interplay with humans and artifacts within the context of daily task. Acting with Technology makes the case for task conception as a foundation for figuring out our courting with know-how. Victor Kaptelinin and Bonnie Nardi describe task theory's rules, historical past, dating to different theoretical methods, and alertness to the research and layout of applied sciences. The publication presents the 1st systematic entry-level advent to the foremost rules of task idea. It describes the gathering physique of labor in interplay layout expert through job conception, drawing on paintings from a world group of students and architects. Kaptelinin and Nardi research the idea of the thing of job, describe its use in an empirical research, and talk about key debates within the improvement of job concept. eventually, they define present and destiny matters in task conception, supplying a comparative research of the speculation and its top theoretical rivals inside interplay layout: dispensed cognition, actor-network concept, and phenomenologically encouraged approaches.
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Extra info for Acting with Technology: Activity Theory and Interaction Design
Of course, ‘‘psychological tools’’ and tools in a more traditional sense are very different. 2 However, one thing is common to instruments and signs: their role in human activity. Both hammers and maps are mediators. The use of mediators, whether crushing a nutshell with a hammer or orienting oneself in an unfamiliar city using a map, changes the structure of activity. Psychological tools transform natural mental processes into instrumental acts (ﬁg. 2), that is, mental processes mediated by culturally developed means.
Otherwise we will always be going back to the square one of detailed renderings of particular cases. As interesting as the cases might be, we have no way of assessing whether they are typical, whether they are important exceptions to which we should pay particular attention, or if they are corner cases we do not have time for at the moment (see Kaptelinin 2002). We cannot discuss trends or look for commonalities across cases that could help us determine where to place our bets. Miettinen (1999) observed that positivistic empiricism was hobbled by a lack of theory.
Most closely related to Russian psychology of the 1920s and 1930s was the constructivist approach developed by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1952). Piaget’s psychology was based on a biological view of organisms trying to reach equilibrium with their environments, rather than on the notion of culture. However, the fundamental idea of the human mind emerging as a component part of the interaction between individuals and the world was not that different from the principle of the unity of consciousness and activity.
Acting with Technology: Activity Theory and Interaction Design by Victor Kaptelinin, Bonnie A. Nardi