By John P. LeDonne
This is often the 1st entire exam of the Russian ruling elite and its political associations in the course of a major interval of nation construction, from the emergence of Russia at the level of worldwide politics round 1700 to the consolidation of its place after the victory over Napoleon. rather than concentrating on the nice rulers of the period--Peter, Catherine, and Alexander--the paintings examines the the Aristocracy which by myself can make their strength powerful. LeDonne not just offers an entire chronological account of the advance of bureaucratic, army, fiscal, and political associations in Russia in this interval, but in addition skillfully analyzes the ways that neighborhood corporations and the ruling classification exercised keep watch over and shared strength with absolutely the monarchs.
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Additional resources for Absolutism and Ruling Class: The Formation of the Russian Political Order, 1700-1825
Nevertheless, it is easy to detect in various Senate decisions and imperial orders a sense of resignation at the ruling elite's inability to resist pressures from below. At the same time, the civilian apparatus competed with the army for limited resources, especially after the creation of the colleges in 1718 and the establishment of gubernatorial and voevoda chanceries. The demand was consequently great for clerks and secretaries but was dampened by a reluctance to admit not so much individuals from the dependent population as people required to pay the capitation, once its payment became the symbol of social degradation, and exemption from it—for nobles, clergy, and, after 1775, merchants of the first two guilds—one of social respectability.
Such a society fostered the cult of military values and encouraged resort to military personnel to carry out tasks that elsewhere would be the responsibility of civilian authorities. 54 The parallel with Prussia readily comes to mind, with one major difference, however. The Prussian officer corps, servants of a tradition inspired by memories of the Teutonic Order, was a brotherhood separate and distinct from the country's civilian apparatus, cohabiting with it in a state of latent tension. 55 Such a dichotomy did not exist in Russia, at least until after the abolition of serfdom.
Kaluga's importance steadily declined, Tula and laroslavl' had fallen off the list by 1815, but Petersburg and Saratov emerged as new centers on the Baltic and the Volga. The combined population of the six (out of twenty-six) provinces made up 35 percent of the total urban population in 1719, 42 percent in 1762, and 44 percent in 1815. Social Groups 29 This registered urban population consisted of the so-called posadskie liudi, people residing in the posad, a term referring to the area of the town that lay between the walls of the fort and the outer land walls.
Absolutism and Ruling Class: The Formation of the Russian Political Order, 1700-1825 by John P. LeDonne