By W H G Armytage
A Social background of Engineering exhibits how social and monetary stipulations in every one age have prompted advances in engineering. There are, briefly, monetary, political, and philosophical implications in altering applied sciences. whereas the e-book starts with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the majority of the amount concentrates at the 19th and 20th centuries. A Social heritage of Engineering displays Professor Armytage's designated topic quarter pursuits, specifically nineteenth-century business society, radical and socialist activities, the background association, and the learn of upper and technical schooling.
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Additional info for A Social History of Engineering
Man-power shortage spread to the ancillary services like the mint ers (monetarii), coin circulators (collectarii), armourers (fabricenses), silk workers (gynaeciarii), clothing workers (textores), collectors of shell fish for dyemaking (murileguli and conchylileguli), miners (metal larii) and transport workers (bastagarii). The six western mints at Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, Lugdunum, Arles and Treves were staffed by guilds whose duties were obligatory and hereditary. Seventeen silk works and two linen factories also worked under the same compulsive discipline.
The Architect of Cambrai cathedral was Villard de Honnecourt, whose sketchbooks of things that he had noticed in his travels between 1243 and 125 1 cover a number of surveying problems such as techniques of measuring distances, and structural details of vaults. He also notes a number of interesting power devices. One was a saw mill driven by water, another a machine to afford perpetual motion, and a third a device to enable an angel to keep his finger always pointing towards the sun. The building of cathedrals and castles generated the first theoretical treatise on structural analysis by Jordanus Nemorarius (c.
Needham, that we must look for the conversion of rotary into reciprocating motion, as effected by the crank. They also used a trip hammer worked by a mill. They were also aware of the property of pivoted lodestones: their tillg-nan-cJzillg or compass meant 'south-pointing needle', and c. D. 500 they realized that this pointing property was possessed by pieces of iron stroked by the lodestone. Here we have what seems to be the origin of the compass. They are also credited with the discovery of the sternpost rudder, an indispensable adjunct of a bamboo raft or its descendant-the junk.
A Social History of Engineering by W H G Armytage