Read e-book online A Scots Grammar: Scots Grammar & Usage PDF

By David Purves

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Extra info for A Scots Grammar: Scots Grammar & Usage

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Lit. like + question particle) 40 41111 1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111 In these and many of the other examples in this book, an arbitrary choice of pronoun is supplied in the English translation. Since pronouns reflect relative status and intimacy, a speaker can, by omission, avoid the possibility of using an inappropriate pronoun. But the omission of pronouns is not simply a strategy for the cautious to avoid linguistic faux pas; it is also a means of denying or avoiding the behavioural or attitudinal expectations of intimacy or deference implicit in the use of any pronoun.

Also as a 2nd person intimate pronoun among members of the same sex, when it is paired with chán (F) or kan (M). – ‘it’; regarded as unrefined and often avoided in polite, formal speech and writing; used widely in informal situations – including to refer to people, either derogatively or familiarly. Kin terms as personal pronouns Kin terms are commonly used as pronouns. A father, for example, will refer to himself as phO›O (‘father’) rather than phoˇm (‘I’) when talking to his son and address his son as lûuk (‘child’) rather than khun (‘you’): phOfl O mây chOfl O p ü‡Ø“¢‡äØõ I (father speaking) don’t like it.

Usage of these and other pronouns is discussed in more detail in the next section. 1111 2 3 4 5 Pronouns have a single form for subject and object: 6 phoˇm chOfl O p kháw 7 ù¢äØõ–Å¿ 8 I like him/her/them. 9 1011 kháw chOfl O p phoˇm 1 –Å¿äØõù¢ 12111 He/she/they like(s) me. 3 The plural reference of a pronoun can be clarified or made explicit by 4 (a) a number or other quantifier expression or (b) the pluralizer word 5 phûak (‘group’): 6 7 raw saˇam khon 8 –§¿´¿¢Éô 9 the three of us 20111 khun tháN sO‡ ON (khon) 1 ÉÀìóæ‰Ü´ØÜ(Éô) 2 the two/both of you 3 4 kháw tháN laˇay 5 –Å¿óæ‰Ü≠¶¿£ 6 all of them 7 phûak raw 8 ü®Ä–§¿ 9 we, us, ‘us lot’ 30111 1 Pronouns are frequently omitted when it is clear from the context who 2 is speaking, being addressed or being referred to: 3 pay phrûN níi 4 5 “úü§À‡Üôƒ‰ 6 I’m/we’re/he’s/she’s/they’re going tomorrow.

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A Scots Grammar: Scots Grammar & Usage by David Purves

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