By John Joseph Saunders
Should not the phrases "Medieval Islam" a redundancy? while has Islam ever now not been "Medieval"? for instance, with a view to research the historical past of the "Dark Ages", you may research eighth and ninth century Europe, otherwise you may perhaps examine any Arab kingdom at the present time that is guided by means of Islamic rules.
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Garnett, 1931. Still the most vivid picture of Bedouin life before the changes of recent years. , La pénétration des Arabes en Syrie avant l’Islam, Paris, 1955. Encyclopaedia of Islam, new ed. 1954, arts. , Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean, Princeton, 1951. A good short account of the sea commerce of old Arabia. , Arabia before Muhammad, London 1927. Now somewhat out-of-date. PHILBY, H. ST. , The Empty Quarter, London, 1933. The story of the crossing of the Rub al-Khali. All Philby’s travel books are worth reading.
Muhammad used his victory with moderation, the Jews being retained as tenants on their lands, which passed into Muslim ownership. The fall of Khaibar was followed by the capitulation, on the same terms, of the smaller Jewish settlements in the Hijaz. Thus closed a tragic chapter in the history of Arabian Jewry, of a people who had sought refuge in the freedom of a desert land from Babylonian or Roman oppression and who, although removed from the main stream of Judaism, preserved the purity of their faith, whose silent influence, when reinforced by that of Christianity, contributed to the overthrow of the ancient gods of Arabia.
From this time onwards the Kuraish were his sworn foes and his position in Mecca rapidly deteriorated. The deaths of his wife and uncle about 619 left him lonely and defenceless, for the new head of the Hashimite clan, Abu Lahab, withdrew the protection which Abu Talib had conferred on his nephew, and Muhammad could thus be killed or injured without provoking a blood feud. He began to look beyond Mecca, and tried to gain support in Ta’if, but its inhabitants would have none of him. He had better success with some men from Medina, who came to Mecca for the pilgrimage of 620.
A History of Medieval Islam by John Joseph Saunders